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About Puberty

What is Puberty?
Puberty is the time when your body starts to change from that of a child to that of an adult. Going from childhood to adulthood is not just a bodily process many other changes will accompany it.
Many changes occur during this time and hormones bring on these changes. Hormones are chemicals released by the brain, as the brain knows when the body is reaching sexual, physical and intellectual maturity. Different types of hormones are responsible for different changes occurring in you. The hormones that bring on the onset of puberty come from a gland near the brain called the pituitary gland. There are hormones that promote the production of other hormones called estrogen and progesterone in girls’ ovaries and in boys the hormonetestoterone is produced in the testicles.
About Puberty for Both Girl&Boy
During this period growth of hormones become active as well, these are responsible for the physical changes that occur in your body. Your body will grow taller you will gain weight
and your shape will change in a general way as well. It is important to know that not everybody experiences these changes at the same time; some people's ‘growth spurt’ might come earlier or later than others and might vary in degrees.
Other types of hormones that affect you during this period are those responsible for the emotional changes. These could generate feelings of confusion, sadness, mood swings and possibly a quick temper. You may experience varying positive or negative feelings and these too are provoked by hormonal changes. You might also feel more self-conscious and possibly socially isolated. It is important to understand that this is normal. These feelings may vary in severity between different people. The best way to deal with this is to talk to someone you trust, choose a family member you can communicate with. Your mother, your aunt, your father or an older sibling could be the best person to talk to, remember that your family is there to support you in all your needs. Communicating with people who care for you is very important, it can help clear much of the confusion you are feeling and can help you look at things from a different perspective.

Emotional changes:
Puberty is not just about physical changes; emotional changes are a big part of this period and these two go together. You might be feeling more self-conscious about the physical changes you are going through. It is important to try not to compare your development with others your age as every person is a unique individual with special needs and problems and his/her development is specific to him/her.

As you are moving from being a young girl or young boy to becoming a woman or a man, your thinking is changing as well. Your relationships, interests, priorities and your world and the important people in it will change as well. This may sound easy but it is not always so. It is important to realize that you are not alone in this and it is not impossible for caring adults in your family to understand what you are going through.
Those crazy hormones are acting up again and they bring on these emotional changes again. Following are some of the emotional changes you might experience during this time:
- You may feel confused.
- You may develop very strong emotions.
- You may feel sad.
- You might have frequent mood changes.
- You might be over sensitive.
- You might get angry and lose your temper more easily.
- You might experience a sense of not belonging to your family, friends etc.
- You might experience problems at school.
- You may ask yourself is it normal to feel what you are feeling.
Yes it is normal to feel this way, you might experience some or most of these emotional symptoms. When matters become too hard to deal with on your own, you have to remember that there are many people who love and care for you no matter what you are going through. Try to approach a person in your family you trust and feel comfortable enough to address these issues with. You will notice how much better you will feel when you share the burden of these emotions with someone you trust. Remember that all adults have gone through this before even your parents.

When does puberty happen?
Puberty is a process that does not follow a strict timeline and it affects each person according to his or her own internal calendar; although it generally starts earlier for girls than boys.
Puberty for girls can begin between ages nine and fourteen, for boys it will be between the ages of ten and seventeen. These age brackets are considered as the norm though anything happening slightly before or after this could still be considered normal. This development process can last from one year to as many as six years. For some it might be a rather quick process or an early one for some it might happen later and take longer.
In the following section we will talk about the physical changes that happen during puberty.

Precocious Puberty

What are the Signs of Precocious Puberty?
In girls, the telltale signs of precocious puberty include any of the following before 7 or 8 years of age:
• breast development
• pubic or underarm hair development
• rapid height growth - a growth "spurt"
• onset of menstruation
• acne
• "mature" body odor
In boys, the signs of precocious puberty before 9 years of age include:
• enlargement of the testicles or penis
• pubic, underarm, or facial hair development
• rapid height growth - a growth "spurt"
• voice deepening
• acne
• "mature" body odor

Many children who show some of the early signs of puberty have what's known as "partial" precocious puberty. Some girls, usually beginning between the ages of 6 months and 3 years, may show breast development that later disappears or may persist without other physical changes of puberty.

Similarly, some girls and boys may experience early growth of pubic and/or underarm hair that isn't associated with other changes in sexual development. Children with "partial" precocious puberty may require evaluation to rule out "true" precocious puberty or other health problems, but they generally need no treatment and usually will show the other expected signs of puberty at the usual age.

How Does Precocious Puberty Affect a Child?
When puberty ends, growth in height stops. Because their skeletons mature and bone growth stops at an earlier age than normal, kids with precocious puberty usually don't achieve their full adult height potential. Their early growth spurt may make them initially tall when compared with their peers, but they may stop growing too soon and end up at a shorter height than they would have otherwise.
Going through puberty early can also be difficult for a child emotionally and socially. For example, girls with precocious puberty may be confused or embarrassed about physical changes such as getting their periods or having enlarged breasts well before any of their peers. But the hardest part may be the teasing that children with the condition - especially girls - may experience.
Even emotions and behavior may change in children with precocious puberty. Girls can become moody and irritable. Boys can become more aggressive and also develop a sex drive inappropriate for their age.

What Causes Precocious Puberty?
The onset of puberty is normally triggered by the hypothalamus (the area of the brain that helps control pituitary gland function). It signals the pituitary gland (a pea-sized gland near the base of the brain) to release hormones that stimulate the ovaries (in girls) or testicles (in boys) to make sex hormones.
Sometimes, precocious puberty stems from a structural problem in the brain (such as a tumor), brain injury due to head trauma, an infection (such as meningitis), or a problem in the ovaries or thyroid gland that triggers the onset of puberty ahead of schedule - but this usually isn't the case.
For the majority of girls, there's no underlying medical problem - they simply start puberty too early for no known reason. In boys, the condition is less common, and more likely to be associated with an underlying medical problem than it is in girls.
In about 5% of boys, precocious puberty is inherited. Starting puberty early can be passed to the son from the father or to the son from the maternal grandfather through the mother (who will not be affected by the disorder). But less than 1% of girls affected by precocious puberty have inherited the condition.

How Is Precocious Puberty Diagnosed?
Talk to your child's doctor if your child shows any signs of early sexual maturation before age 7 or 8 in girls or age 9 in boys, including breast development, rapid height growth, menstruation, acne, enlarged testicles or penis, or pubic or underarm hair.
The physical changes boys and girls go through during puberty are usually evident to a doctor during an exam. To confirm a diagnosis of precocious puberty, your child's doctor may order blood and urine tests to detect elevated levels of sex hormones. And X-rays of your child's wrist and hand can show whether the bones are maturing too rapidly.
Imaging and scanning tests such as CT scans, MRIs (magnetic resonance imaging), and ultrasound studies can help rule out specific causes of precocious puberty, such as a tumor in the brain, ovary, or testicle.

How Is Precocious Puberty Treated?
If your child's doctor suspects that your little one has precocious puberty, he or she may refer you to a pediatric endocrinologist (a doctor who specializes in growth and hormonal disorders in children) for further evaluation and treatment.
Once it's diagnosed, the goal of treating precocious puberty is to halt or even reverse sexual development and stop the rapid growth and bone maturation that can eventually result in adult short stature. Depending upon the cause, there are two possible approaches to treatment:
1. treating the underlying cause or disease, such as a tumor
2. lowering the high levels of sex hormones with medication to stop sexual development from progressing
In some cases, treatment of an underlying health problem can stop the precocious puberty from progressing. But in most cases, because there's no other disease triggering the condition, treatment usually consists of hormone therapy that stops sexual development.
The currently approved hormone treatment is with drugs called LHRH analogs - synthetic hormones that block the body's production of the sex hormones that are causing the early puberty. Dramatic results are usually seen within a year of starting treatment with an LHRH analog, which is generally safe and usually causes no side effects in children. In girls, breast size may decrease - or at least there will be no further development. In boys, the penis and testicles may shrink back to the size expected for their age. Growth in height will also slow down to a rate expected for children before puberty. A child's behavior usually becomes more age appropriate as well.

Caring for Your Child
Give your child a simple, truthful explanation about what's happening. Explain that these changes are normal for older kids and teens, but that his or her body has started developing a little too early. Keep your child informed about his or her treatment and what can be expected along the way.
Also be sure to watch for signs that teasing or other difficulties associated with precocious puberty may be affecting your child's emotional development. Common warning signs to discuss with your child's doctor include:
• poor grades
• problems at school
• loss of interest in daily activities
• depression
How you cope with the issue can also determine how successfully your child will cope. The goal is to prevent your child from dwelling on sexual development or developing a poor self-image or low self-esteem. To create a supportive environment, try not to focus your comments on your child's appearance; instead, offer praise for achievements in school or sports and support your child's participation in other activities.
The important thing to remember is that children with precocious puberty can be treated. Doctors can help your child preserve his or her adult height potential as well as limit the emotional and social difficulties your child may face from maturing early.

Endocrine System

Although we rarely think about them, the glands of the endocrine system and the hormones they release influence almost every cell, organ, and function of our bodies. The endocrine system is instrumental in regulating mood, growth and development, tissue function, and metabolism, as well as sexual function and reproductive processes.
In general, the endocrine system is in charge of body processes that happen slowly, such as cell growth. Faster processes like breathing and body movement are controlled by the nervous system. But even though the nervous system and endocrine system are separate systems, they often work together to help the body function properly.
Human Endocrine System

About the Endocrine System
The foundations of the endocrine system are the hormones and glands. As the body's chemical messengers, hormones transfer information and instructions from one set of cells to another. Although many different hormones circulate throughout the bloodstream, each one affects only the cells that are genetically programmed to receive and respond to its message. Hormone levels can be influenced by factors such as stress, infection, and changes in the balance of fluid and minerals in blood.

A gland is a group of cells that produces and secretes, or gives off, chemicals. A gland selects and removes materials from the blood, processes them, and secretes the finished chemical product for use somewhere in the body. Some types of glands release their secretions in specific areas. For instance, exocrine glands, such as the sweat and salivary glands, release secretions in the skin or inside of the mouth. Endocrine glands, on the other hand, release more than 20 major hormones directly into the bloodstream where they can be transported to cells in other parts of the body.

The major glands that make up the human endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal body, and the reproductive glands, which include the ovaries and testes. The pancreas is also part of this hormone-secreting system, even though it is also associated with the digestive system because it also produces and secretes digestive enzymes.
Although the endocrine glands are the body's main hormone producers, some non-endocrine organs — such as the brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, thymus, skin, and placenta — also produce and release hormones.

The hypothalamus, a collection of specialized cells that is located in the lower central part of the brain, is the primary link between the endocrine and nervous systems. Nerve cells in the hypothalamus control the pituitary gland by producing chemicals that either stimulate or suppress hormone secretions from the pituitary.
Although it is no bigger than a pea, the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain just beneath the hypothalamus, is considered the most important part of the endocrine system. It's often called the "master gland" because it makes hormones that control several other endocrine glands. The production and secretion of pituitary hormones can be influenced by factors such as emotions and seasonal changes. To accomplish this, the hypothalamus relays information sensed by the brain (such as environmental temperature, light exposure patterns, and feelings) to the pituitary.

The tiny pituitary is divided into two parts: the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe. The anterior lobe regulates the activity of the thyroid, adrenals, and reproductive glands. Among the hormones it produces are:
growth hormone, which stimulates the growth of bone and other body tissues and plays a role in the body's handling of nutrients and minerals
prolactin, which activates milk production in women who are breastfeeding
thyrotropin, which stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones
corticotropin, which stimulates the adrenal gland to produce certain hormones
The pituitary also secretes endorphins, chemicals that act on the nervous system to reduce sensitivity to pain. In addition, the pituitary secretes hormones that signal the ovaries and testes to make sex hormones. The pituitary gland also controls ovulation and the menstrual cycle in women.

The posterior lobe of the pituitary releases antidiuretic hormone, which helps control body water balance through its effect on the kidneys and urine output; and oxytocin, which triggers the contractions of the uterus that occur during labor.

The thyroid, located in the front part of the lower neck, is shaped like a bowtie or butterfly and produces the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine. These hormones control the rate at which cells burn fuels from food to produce energy. As the level of thyroid hormones increases in the bloodstream, so does the speed at which chemical reactions occur in the body.
Thyroid hormones also play a key role in bone growth and the development of the brain and nervous system in children. The production and release of thyroid hormones is controlled by thyrotropin, which is secreted by the pituitary gland.
Attached to the thyroid are four tiny glands that function together called the parathyroids. They release parathyroid hormone, which regulates the level of calcium in the blood with the help of calcitonin, which is produced in the thyroid.

The body has two triangular adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney. The adrenal glands have two parts, each of which produces a set of hormones and has a different function. The outer part, the adrenal cortex, produces hormones called corticosteroids that influence or regulate salt and water balance in the body, the body's response to stress, metabolism, the immune system, and sexual development and function.
The inner part, the adrenal medulla, produces catecholamines, such as epinephrine. Also called adrenaline, epinephrine increases blood pressure and heart rate when the body experiences stress. (Epinephrine injections are often used to counteract a severe allergic reaction.)
The pineal body, also called the pineal gland, is located in the middle of the brain. It secretes melatonin, a hormone that may help regulate the wake-sleep cycle.

The gonads are the main source of sex hormones. In males, they are located in the scrotum. Male gonads, or testes, secrete hormones called androgens, the most important of which is testosterone. These hormones regulate body changes associated with sexual development, including enlargement of the penis, the growth spurt that occurs during puberty, and the appearance of other male secondary sex characteristics such as deepening of the voice, growth of facial and pubic hair, and the increase in muscle growth and strength. Working with hormones from the pituitary gland, testosterone also supports the production of sperm by the testes.
The female gonads, the ovaries, are located in the pelvis. They produce eggs and secrete the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen is involved in the development of female sexual features such as breast growth, the accumulation of body fat around the hips and thighs, and the growth spurt that occurs during puberty. Both estrogen and progesterone are also involved in pregnancy and the regulation of the menstrual cycle.
The pancreas produces (in addition to others) two important hormones, insulin and glucagon. They work together to maintain a steady level of glucose, or sugar, in the blood and to keep the body supplied with fuel to produce and maintain stores of energy.

What the Endocrine System Does
Once a hormone is secreted, it travels from the endocrine gland through the bloodstream to target cells designed to receive its message. Along the way to the target cells, special proteins bind to some of the hormones. The special proteins act as carriers that control the amount of hormone that is available to interact with and affect the target cells.
Also, the target cells have receptors that latch onto only specific hormones, and each hormone has its own receptor, so that each hormone will communicate only with specific target cells that possess receptors for that hormone. When the hormone reaches its target cell, it locks onto the cell's specific receptors and these hormone-receptor combinations transmit chemical instructions to the inner workings of the cell.

When hormone levels reach a certain normal or necessary amount, further secretion is controlled by important body mechanisms to maintain that level of hormone in the blood. This regulation of hormone secretion may involve the hormone itself or another substance in the blood related to the hormone.
For example, if the thyroid gland has secreted adequate amounts of thyroid hormones into the blood, the pituitary gland senses the normal levels of thyroid hormone in the bloodstream and adjusts its release of thyrotropin, the pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones.
Another example is parathyroid hormone, which increases the level of calcium in the blood. When the blood calcium level rises, the parathyroid glands sense the change and decrease their secretion of parathyroid hormone. This turnoff process is called a negative feedback system.

Problems With the Endocrine System
Too much or too little of any hormone can be harmful to the body. For example, if the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone, a child may grow excessively tall. If it produces too little, a child may be abnormally short.
Controlling the production of or replacing specific hormones can treat many endocrine disorders in children and adolescents, some of which include:
Adrenal insufficiency. This condition is characterized by decreased function of the adrenal cortex and the consequent underproduction of adrenal corticosteroid hormones. The symptoms of adrenal insufficiency may include weakness, fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, dehydration, and skin changes. Doctors treat adrenal insufficiency by giving replacement corticosteroid hormones.
Cushing syndrome. Excessive amounts of glucocorticoid hormones in the body can lead to Cushing syndrome. In children, it most often results when a child takes large doses of synthetic corticosteroid drugs (such as prednisone) to treat autoimmune diseases such as lupus. If the condition is due to a tumor in the pituitary gland that produces excessive amounts of corticotropin and stimulates the adrenals to overproduce corticosteroids, it's known as Cushing disease. Symptoms may take years to develop and include obesity, growth failure, muscle weakness, easy bruising of the skin, acne, high blood pressure, and psychological changes. Depending on the specific cause, doctors may treat this condition with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or drugs that block the production of hormones.

Type 1 diabetes. When the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin, type 1 diabetes (previously known as juvenile diabetes) occurs. Symptoms include excessive thirst, hunger, urination, and weight loss. In children and teens, the condition is usually an autoimmune disorder in which specific immune system cells and antibodies produced by the immune system attack and destroy the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin. The disease can cause long-term complications including kidney problems, nerve damage, blindness, and early coronary heart disease and stroke. To control their blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of developing diabetes complications, kids with this condition need regular injections of insulin.

Type 2 diabetes. Unlike type 1 diabetes, in which the body can't produce normal amounts of insulin, in type 2 diabetes the body is unable to respond to insulin normally. Children and teens with the condition tend to be overweight, and it is believed that excess body fat plays a role in the insulin resistance that characterizes the disease. In fact, the rising prevalence of this type of diabetes in kids has paralleled the dramatically increasing rates of obesity among kids in recent years. The symptoms and possible complications of type 2 diabetes are basically the same as those of type 1. Some kids and teens can control their blood sugar level with dietary changes, exercise, and oral medications, but many will need to take insulin injections like patients with type 1 diabetes.

Growth hormone problems. Too much growth hormone in children who are still growing will make their bones and other body parts grow excessively, resulting in gigantism. This rare condition is usually caused by a pituitary tumor and can be treated by removing the tumor. In contrast, when the pituitary gland fails to produce adequate amounts of growth hormone, a child's growth in height is impaired. Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) may also occur in kids with growth hormone deficiency, particularly in infants and young children with the condition.

Hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood are excessively high. Symptoms may include weight loss, nervousness, tremors, excessive sweating, increased heart rate and blood pressure, protruding eyes, and a swelling in the neck from an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter). In kids the condition is usually caused by Graves' disease, an autoimmune disorder in which specific antibodies produced by the immune system stimulate the thyroid gland to become overactive. The disease may be controlled with medications or by removal or destruction of the thyroid gland through surgery or radiation treatments.

Hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood are abnormally low. Thyroid hormone deficiency slows body processes and may lead to fatigue, a slow heart rate, dry skin, weight gain, constipation, and, in kids, slowing of growth and delayed puberty. Hashimoto's thyroiditis, which results from an autoimmune process that damages the thyroid and blocks thyroid hormone production, is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in kids. Infants can also be born with an absent or underdeveloped thyroid gland, resulting in hypothyroidism. It can be treated with oral thyroid hormone replacement.

Precocious puberty. Body changes associated with puberty may occur at an abnormally young age in some kids if the pituitary hormones that stimulate the gonads to produce sex hormones rise prematurely. An injectable medication is available that can suppress the secretion of these pituitary hormones (known as gonadotropins) and arrest the progression of sexual development in most of these children.
Puberty, usually occurring during adolescence, is when kids develop physically and emotionally into young men and women. Usually, this starts to happen no earlier than about 7 to 8 years of age for girls and 9 years of age for boys (the average age is about 10 for girls and 12 for boys). But what if a younger child - for example, a 5-year-old girl - begins showing the signs of puberty? How would it affect her?
Precocious puberty - the onset of signs of puberty before age 7 or 8 in girls and age 9 in boys - can be physically and emotionally difficult for children and can sometimes be the sign of an underlying health problem.

Nervous System

As the most complex system, the nervous system serves as the body control center and communications electrical-chemical wiring network. As a key homeostatic regulatory and coordinating system, it detects, interprets, and responds to changes in internal and external conditions. The nervous system integrates countless bits of information and generates appropriate reactions by sending electrochemical impulses through nerves to effector organs such as muscles and glands. The brain and spinal cord are the central nervous system (CNS); the connecting nerve processes to effectors and receptors serve as the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Special sense receptors provide for taste, smell, sight, hearing, and balance. Nerves carry all messages exchanged between the CNS and the rest of the body.
Human Nervous System

Nervous system: set of nerves, ganglions and nervous centers that receive sensory signal. Commands and coordinates vital functions.
Brachial plexus: network of nerves of the arm.
Intercostal nerve: cord conducting nerve impulses between the ribs.
Radial nerve: cord conducting nerve impulses in the area of the radius.
Median nerve: main cord conducting nerve impulses in the upper limb.
Ulnar nerve: cord conducting nerve impulses in the area of the elbow.
Lumbar plexus: network of nerves of the lower back.
Sciatic nerve: cord conducting nerve impulses in the area of the thigh and lower leg.
Common peroneal nerve: cord conducting nerve impulses along the inside of the lower leg.
Superficial peroneal nerve: cord conducting nerve impulses of the muscles and skin of the leg.
Digital nerve: cord conducting nerve impulses of the fingers.
Sacral plexus: network of nerves of the sacrum.
Spinal cord: substance belonging to the nervous system, found in the holes of the vertebrae.
Cerebellum: nervous centre situated under the brain.
Cerebrum: seat of the mental capacities.

Muscular System

In muscular system there are three different groups
These are three different groups.:
1. SMOOTH MUSCLES - The smooth muscles are muscles that we don't have control of. They include muscles that surround organs including the stomach, lungs, and intestines. Because we cannot control them, they are called "involuntary muscles"

2. SKELETAL MUSCLES - Skeletal muscles are muscles that are directly attached to bones. These muscles are responsible for all of the movement our body can accomplish. When most people think of muscles, they think of skeletal muscles.

3. CARDIAC MUSCLES - Cardiac muscles are only found in one place in your body...your heart. This involuntary set of muscles make up the chambers of your heart. They pump all day and night transporting blood throughout the body.
Muscles are only able to CONTRACT or pull. Because our body has to move in many directions, most muscles are set up in pairs so that one muscle can pull a bone in one direction, and another muscle can pull the bone back the other way.

There are over 600 kinds of muscles that scientists have named. Some muscles are tiny - when we get goosebumps, we are actually seeing a tiny muscle contracting to raise a hair. The longest muscle is satorius muscle in your leg. The largest muscle in the body is Gluteus Maximus - the muscle you sit on!
The Human Muscular System Back
1. Occipitalis
2. Semispinalis Capitis
3. Splenius Capitis
4. Sternocleidomastoid
5. Trapezius
6. Deltiod
7. Teres Minor
8. Teres Major
9. Triceps Brachii
10. Latissimus Dorsi
11. Brachioradialis
12. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
13. Anconeus
14. Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
15. Extensor Digitorum
16. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
17 Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
18. Erector Spinae
19. Internal & External Oblique
20. Gluteus Medius & Gluteus Minimus (underneath Gluteus Medius)
21. Gluteus Maximus
22. Vastus Lateralis
23. Gracilis
24. Adductor Magnus
25. Biceps Femoris
26. Semitendinosus
27. Semimembranosus
28. Gastocnemius
29. Soleus
30. Peroneus Longus
31. Flexor Digitorum Longus
32. Extensor Digitorum Longus

The Human Muscular System Front

1. Galea Aponeurotica
2. Epicranius
3. Orbicularis Oculi
4. Nasalis
5. Levator Labii Superioris
6. Zygomaticus major & minor
7. Orbicularis Oris
8. Risorius
9. Depressor Anguli Oris
10. Depressor Labii Inferioris
11. Mentalis
12. Omohyoid
13. Sternohyoid
14. Sternal Head of Sternocleidomastoid
15. Scalene
16. Trapezius
17. Deltoid
18. Pectoralis Major
19. Serratus Anterior
20. Rectus Abdominis
21. External Abdominal Oblique
22. Biceps Brachii
23. Brachialis
24. Pronator Teres
25. Brachioradialis
26. Flexor Carpi Radialis
27. Extensor Carpi Radialis
28. Tensor Fasciae Latae
29. Iliopsoas
30. Pectineus
31. Sartorius
32. Adductor Longus
33. Gracilis
34. Rectus Femoris
35. Vastus Intermedius
36. Vastus Lateralis
37. Vastus Medialis
38. Gastrocnemius
39. Peroneus Longus
40. Tibialis Anterior
41. Soleus
42. Peroneus Brevis
43. Extensor Digitorum Longus

Skeletal System

The Skeletal System
Human Skeletal SystemThe Skeletal System serves many important functions; it provides the shape and form for our bodies in addition to supporting, protecting, allowing bodily movement, producing blood for the body, and storing minerals.
Its 206 bones form a rigid framework to which the softer tissues and organs of the body are attached.
Vital organs are protected by the skeletal system. The brain is protected by the surrounding skull as the heart and lungs are encased by the sternum and rib cage.
Bodily movement is carried out by the interaction of the muscular and skeletal systems. For this reason, they are often grouped together as the musculo-skeletal system. Muscles are connected to bones by tendons. Bones are connected to each other by ligaments. Where bones meet one another is typically called a joint. Muscles which cause movement of a joint are connected to two different bones and contract to pull them together. An example would be the contraction of the biceps and a relaxation of the triceps. This produces a bend at the elbow. The contraction of the triceps and relaxation of the biceps produces the effect of straightening the arm.
Blood cells are produced by the marrow located in some bones. An average of 2.6 million red blood cells are produced each second by the bone marrow to replace those worn out and destroyed by the liver.
Bones serve as a storage area for minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. When an excess is present in the blood, buildup will occur within the bones. When the supply of these minerals within the blood is low, it will be withdrawn from the bones to replenish the supply.

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